Accounting and Bookkeeping Business Plan

The Sorcerer's Accountant

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Financial Plan

The financial plan of the business requires growth financed by positive cash flows from operations. Additional outside investment or owner investment is not necessary. The new business line is not capital-intensive, but will increase fixed costs of the business which must be covered almost immediately by additional revenues from bookkeeping sales. This is feasible because it is expected that at least five current clients will use the service without hesitation as they are ready to start using a bookkeeper or outsource their current bookkeeping.

Important Assumptions

The business will grow the number of part-time bookkeepers with the business over these next three years. In the first year, two bookkeepers will work at less than 20 hours per week each for several months before reaching capacity, and a third bookkeeper will join us mid-year. A fourth part-time bookkeeper will be added in year two, and four more will be added in year three.

Break-even Analysis

Our monthly revenue break-even is based on the fixed costs of running the current business along with the old lines of business. This is a significant increase from the 2009 break-even point. The increased marketing activity, capacity, payroll, benefits, and computer expenses for the new bookkeeper, insurance for the new line of business, and cost of sales to hire bookkeepers drives this break-even point higher.

Break-even Analysis
Monthly Units Break-even 141
Monthly Revenue Break-even $16,926
Assumptions:
Average Per-Unit Revenue $120.36
Average Per-Unit Variable Cost $16.58
Estimated Monthly Fixed Cost $14,595

Projected Profit and Loss

The Sorcerer's Accountant actually expects its gross margin to fall as it takes on bookkeepers to fulfill the new bookkeeping service. This will move from the firm's gross margin from being in line with a non-employer firm to a contractor firm that provides labor to businesses. The growth in revenues will offset this drop in gross margin and produce steady growth in net profit. Marketing will include the activities listed for 2010 in the milestones table as well as additional runs of print ads in local publications beyond the first few months. This expense will drop somewhat in future years as marketing returns to the business's focus on referrals and word-of-mouth from clients.

Rent and utilities will not grow significantly, as only Greenwood and the bookkeeping manager will work out of the office space. Insurance will grow to cover the added liability of additional employees working in client spaces. Payroll taxes are set at 15% of payroll and the bookkeeping labor items. Employee benefits are 10% of payroll and are provided only for the management. January will be a month of additional setup training to bring the new bookkeepers and manager online and install additional software and computers. Software and computer expenses to provide accounting software for the laptops of student bookkeepers and to continue to upgrade the systems of the business will grow. In the first year, this includes a computer and software set-up for the bookkeeping manager.

Pro Forma Profit and Loss
2010 2011 2012
Sales $218,100 $295,950 $420,350
Direct Cost of Sales $30,039 $65,640 $124,763
Other Cost of Sales $0 $0 $0
Total Cost of Sales $30,039 $65,640 $124,763
Gross Margin $188,061 $230,310 $295,588
Gross Margin % 86.23% 77.82% 70.32%
Expenses
Payroll $93,600 $103,580 $131,400
Marketing/Promotion $38,500 $20,000 $20,000
Depreciation $0 $0 $0
Rent $18,000 $18,720 $19,469
Utilities $2,400 $2,496 $2,596
Insurance $5,000 $7,000 $8,000
Payroll Taxes $14,040 $15,537 $19,710
Software and Computer Expenses $3,600 $4,000 $6,000
Total Operating Expenses $175,140 $171,333 $207,175
Profit Before Interest and Taxes $12,921 $58,977 $88,413
EBITDA $12,921 $58,977 $88,413
Interest Expense $0 $0 $0
Taxes Incurred $3,876 $17,693 $26,524
Net Profit $9,045 $41,284 $61,889
Net Profit/Sales 4.15% 13.95% 14.72%

Projected Cash Flow

The expansion of the business can be undertaken with the current cash reserves, even accounting for a cash loss over $10000 in February, 2010 as the marketing and set-up expenses for the new business line must be paid. The business will return to positive cash-flow in the second quarter. The fact that the part-time bookkeepers will only be deployed on paying jobs lowers the risk of this new business line to the cost of the bookkeeping manager and marketing. Significant cash reserves can be built up in future years for an acquisition or additional service expansion or the owner can take dividends as shown.

Pro Forma Cash Flow
2010 2011 2012
Cash Received
Cash from Operations
Cash Sales $109,050 $147,975 $210,175
Cash from Receivables $105,612 $144,145 $204,055
Subtotal Cash from Operations $214,662 $292,120 $414,230
Additional Cash Received
Sales Tax, VAT, HST/GST Received $0 $0 $0
New Current Borrowing $0 $0 $0
New Other Liabilities (interest-free) $0 $0 $0
New Long-term Liabilities $0 $0 $0
Sales of Other Current Assets $0 $0 $0
Sales of Long-term Assets $0 $0 $0
New Investment Received $0 $0 $0
Subtotal Cash Received $214,662 $292,120 $414,230
Expenditures 2010 2011 2012
Expenditures from Operations
Cash Spending $93,600 $103,580 $131,400
Bill Payments $111,643 $149,376 $220,816
Subtotal Spent on Operations $205,243 $252,956 $352,216
Additional Cash Spent
Sales Tax, VAT, HST/GST Paid Out $0 $0 $0
Principal Repayment of Current Borrowing $0 $0 $0
Other Liabilities Principal Repayment $0 $0 $0
Long-term Liabilities Principal Repayment $0 $0 $0
Purchase Other Current Assets $0 $0 $0
Purchase Long-term Assets $0 $0 $0
Dividends $0 $20,000 $60,000
Subtotal Cash Spent $205,243 $272,956 $412,216
Net Cash Flow $9,418 $19,164 $2,013
Cash Balance $29,418 $48,582 $50,596

Projected Balance Sheet

The net worth of the business will improve if the new business line succeeds as expected. Additional external financing will not be needed and the debt of the business will remain low.

Pro Forma Balance Sheet
2010 2011 2012
Assets
Current Assets
Cash $29,418 $48,582 $50,596
Accounts Receivable $10,730 $14,560 $20,680
Other Current Assets $5,000 $5,000 $5,000
Total Current Assets $45,148 $68,142 $76,276
Long-term Assets
Long-term Assets $0 $0 $0
Accumulated Depreciation $0 $0 $0
Total Long-term Assets $0 $0 $0
Total Assets $45,148 $68,142 $76,276
Liabilities and Capital 2010 2011 2012
Current Liabilities
Accounts Payable $10,708 $12,418 $18,663
Current Borrowing $0 $0 $0
Other Current Liabilities $0 $0 $0
Subtotal Current Liabilities $10,708 $12,418 $18,663
Long-term Liabilities $0 $0 $0
Total Liabilities $10,708 $12,418 $18,663
Paid-in Capital $10,000 $10,000 $10,000
Retained Earnings $15,396 $4,441 ($14,276)
Earnings $9,045 $41,284 $61,889
Total Capital $34,441 $55,724 $57,613
Total Liabilities and Capital $45,148 $68,142 $76,276
Net Worth $34,441 $55,724 $57,613

Business Ratios

The Sorcerer's Accountant is compared here to the "Office Administrative Services" industry of under $500,000 in revenues. Comparison to the other closest industry, "Tax Preparation Services," is less useful because of the differences created by the new revenue line.

Sorcerer's Accountant does not hold substantial current or long-term assets, besides some office equipment and a rental security deposit. The assets of the business are primarily the human and knowledge assets of Max Greenwood, and the resources presented on the Sorcerer's Accountant website which are not recognized here. This explains the differences in asset ratios.

Gross margins will be higher than industry averages, as employees will be contracted directly to clients only for the bookkeeping services and not for the accounting services of the business. However, S G & A will be higher than the industry averages because of the need for an extra level of management to oversee the employees.

Ratio Analysis
2010 2011 2012 Industry Profile
Sales Growth 24.63% 35.69% 42.03% 3.34%
Percent of Total Assets
Accounts Receivable 23.77% 21.37% 27.11% 14.34%
Other Current Assets 11.07% 7.34% 6.56% 53.58%
Total Current Assets 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 70.11%
Long-term Assets 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 29.89%
Total Assets 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%
Current Liabilities 23.72% 18.22% 24.47% 37.94%
Long-term Liabilities 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 54.53%
Total Liabilities 23.72% 18.22% 24.47% 92.47%
Net Worth 76.28% 81.78% 75.53% 7.53%
Percent of Sales
Sales 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%
Gross Margin 86.23% 77.82% 70.32% 59.56%
Selling, General & Administrative Expenses 82.08% 63.87% 55.60% 28.35%
Advertising Expenses 17.65% 6.76% 4.76% 1.21%
Profit Before Interest and Taxes 5.92% 19.93% 21.03% 8.19%
Main Ratios
Current 4.22 5.49 4.09 1.24
Quick 4.22 5.49 4.09 1.18
Total Debt to Total Assets 23.72% 18.22% 24.47% 92.47%
Pre-tax Return on Net Worth 37.52% 105.84% 153.46% 696.33%
Pre-tax Return on Assets 28.62% 86.55% 115.91% 52.41%
Additional Ratios 2010 2011 2012
Net Profit Margin 4.15% 13.95% 14.72% n.a
Return on Equity 26.26% 74.09% 107.42% n.a
Activity Ratios
Accounts Receivable Turnover 10.16 10.16 10.16 n.a
Collection Days 29 31 31 n.a
Accounts Payable Turnover 10.78 12.17 12.17 n.a
Payment Days 29 28 25 n.a
Total Asset Turnover 4.83 4.34 5.51 n.a
Debt Ratios
Debt to Net Worth 0.31 0.22 0.32 n.a
Current Liab. to Liab. 1.00 1.00 1.00 n.a
Liquidity Ratios
Net Working Capital $34,441 $55,724 $57,613 n.a
Interest Coverage 0.00 0.00 0.00 n.a
Additional Ratios
Assets to Sales 0.21 0.23 0.18 n.a
Current Debt/Total Assets 24% 18% 24% n.a
Acid Test 3.21 4.31 2.98 n.a
Sales/Net Worth 6.33 5.31 7.30 n.a
Dividend Payout 0.00 0.48 0.97 n.a
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