Fulham Furniture Manufacturer--UK
The financial picture is quite encouraging. We have been slow to take on debt, but with our increase in sales we do expect to apply for a credit line with the bank, to a limit of £150,000. The credit line is easily supported by assets.
We do expect to be able to take some money out as dividends. The owners don’t take overly generous salaries, so some draw is appropriate.
7.1 Important Assumptions
The accompanying table lists our main assumptions for developing our financial projections. The most sensitive assumption is the collection days. We would like to improve collection days to take pressure off of our working capital, but our increasing sales through channels makes the collection time a cost of doing business.
We also expect to see a decline in our stock turnover ratio, another unfortunate side effect of increasing sales through channel. We find ourselves having to buy earlier and hold more finished goods in order to deal with sales through the channel.
|Current Interest Rate||10.00%||10.00%||10.00%|
|Long-term Interest Rate||9.00%||9.00%||9.00%|
7.2 Key Financial Indicators
The following chart shows changes in key financial indicators: sales, gross margin, operating expenses, collection days, and stock turnover. The growth in sales will be very hard to manage. We expect our gross margin to be a bit lower than before, because our projections show a slight decline as we go into new product areas and face new competition.
The projections for collection days and stock turnover show that we are already expecting a decline in these indicators, because of increasing sales through channels.
7.3 Break-even Analysis
Our break-even analysis is based on running costs, the “burn-rate” costs we incur to keep the business running, not on theoretical fixed costs that would be relevant only if we were closing. Between payroll, rent, utilities, and basic marketing costs, we think we have a good estimate of fixed costs.
Our assumptions on average unit sales and average per-unit costs depend on averaging. We don’t really need to calculate an exact average, this is close enough to help us understand what a real break-even point might be.
The essential insight here is that our sales level seems to be running comfortably above break-even.
|Monthly Units Break-even||15|
|Monthly Revenue Break-even||£21,961|
|Average Per-Unit Revenue||£1,513.93|
|Average Per-Unit Variable Cost||£381.96|
|Estimated Monthly Fixed Cost||£16,420|
7.4 Projected Profit and Loss
We do expect a significant increase in profitability this year, and in the future, because we have learned how to deal with the increasing sales levels of selling through channels. Despite the lower profitability levels of recent years, we expect Net Profit/Sales to improve yearly through 2008.
Our higher sales volume has lowered our cost of goods and increased our gross margin. This increase in gross margin is important to profitability.
|Pro Forma Profit and Loss|
|Direct Cost of Sales||£113,825||£174,000||£274,000|
|Total Cost of Sales||£168,535||£254,000||£459,000|
|Gross Margin %||62.64%||63.32%||57.99%|
|Sales and Marketing Expenses|
|Sales and Marketing Payroll||£37,000||£65,000||£72,000|
|Total Sales and Marketing Expenses||£114,900||£150,700||£166,300|
|Sales and Marketing %||25.47%||21.76%||15.22%|
|General and Administrative Expenses|
|General and Administrative Payroll||£48,000||£75,000||£100,000|
|Sales and Marketing and Other Expenses||£0||£0||£0|
|Other General and Administrative Expenses||£0||£0||£0|
|Total General and Administrative Expenses||£79,140||£121,550||£169,800|
|General and Administrative %||17.54%||17.55%||15.54%|
|Total Other Expenses||£3,000||£15,000||£25,000|
|Total Operating Expenses||£197,040||£287,250||£361,100|
|Profit Before Interest and Taxes||£85,575||£151,250||£272,400|
7.5 Projected Cash Flow
Although we expect to be more profitable in 2006, we still have drains on the cash flow. We need to invest in new assembly and manufacturing equipment, plus new computer equipment, and in miscellaneous current assets, including office equipment. Because of our increased sales through channels, and necessary increase in stock levels, we need to increase working capital. We plan to extend our credit line to cover as much as £150,000 in current credit, backed by receivables and stock. Our maximum extension at the end of the year is covered by receivables and stock that same month.
|Pro Forma Cash Flow|
|Cash from Operations|
|Cash from Receivables||£114,725||£159,394||£250,368|
|Subtotal Cash from Operations||£453,088||£678,769||£1,069,743|
|Additional Cash Received|
|Sales Tax, VAT, HST/GST Received||£0||£0||£0|
|New Current Borrowing||£125,000||£50,000||£100,000|
|New Other Liabilities (interest-free)||£0||£0||£0|
|New Long-term Liabilities||£0||£0||£0|
|Sales of Other Current Assets||£0||£0||£0|
|Sales of Long-term Assets||£0||£0||£0|
|New Investment Received||£50,000||£0||£0|
|Subtotal Cash Received||£628,088||£728,769||£1,169,743|
|Expenditures from Operations|
|Subtotal Spent on Operations||£387,194||£583,534||£900,561|
|Additional Cash Spent|
|Sales Tax, VAT, HST/GST Paid Out||£0||£0||£0|
|Principal Repayment of Current Borrowing||£10,000||£0||£0|
|Other Liabilities Principal Repayment||£0||£0||£0|
|Long-term Liabilities Principal Repayment||£0||£0||£0|
|Purchase Other Current Assets||£0||£0||£0|
|Purchase Long-term Assets||£50,000||£20,000||£30,000|
|Subtotal Cash Spent||£447,194||£603,534||£930,561|
|Net Cash Flow||£180,894||£125,235||£239,182|
7.6 Projected Balance Sheet
Our projected balance sheet shows an increase in net worth in 2008, at which point we expect to be making a comfortable profit on projected sales. With the present financial projections we will be careful in supporting our working capital credit line, and we are growing assets both because we want to–new equipment–and because we have to grow receivables and stock to support growth in sales through channels.
|Pro Forma Balance Sheet|
|Other Current Assets||£2,375||£2,375||£2,375|
|Total Current Assets||£222,444||£367,791||£640,334|
|Total Long-term Assets||£50,490||£69,390||£98,190|
|Liabilities and Capital||2006||2007||2008|
|Other Current Liabilities||£1,803||£1,803||£1,803|
|Subtotal Current Liabilities||£135,070||£196,379||£310,593|
|Total Liabilities and Capital||£272,934||£437,181||£738,524|
7.7 Business Ratios
Our ratios look healthy and solid. Gross margin is projected to decline, return on assets increasing, and return on equity to improve as well. Debt and liquidity ratios also look tough, with debt to net worth running at more than 1.4 to one. The projections, if we make them, are manageable. The standard comparisons are based on standard financials for manufacturers of wood office furniture.
|Percent of Total Assets|
|Other Current Assets||0.87%||0.54%||0.32%||19.00%|
|Total Current Assets||81.50%||84.13%||86.70%||74.90%|
|Percent of Sales|
|Selling, General & Administrative Expenses||54.30%||51.00%||41.94%||18.90%|
|Profit Before Interest and Taxes||18.97%||21.84%||24.93%||1.80%|
|Total Debt to Total Assets||49.49%||44.92%||42.06%||54.30%|
|Pre-tax Return on Net Worth||55.73%||57.00%||58.63%||5.10%|
|Pre-tax Return on Assets||28.15%||31.39%||33.97%||11.10%|
|Net Profit Margin||12.81%||14.86%||17.13%||n.a|
|Return on Equity||41.93%||42.75%||43.73%||n.a|
|Accounts Receivable Turnover||4.39||4.39||4.39||n.a|
|Accounts Payable Turnover||13.94||12.17||12.17||n.a|
|Total Asset Turnover||1.65||1.58||1.48||n.a|
|Debt to Net Worth||0.98||0.82||0.73||n.a|
|Current Liab. to Liab.||1.00||1.00||1.00||n.a|
|Net Working Capital||£87,374||£171,412||£329,741||n.a|
|Assets to Sales||0.60||0.63||0.68||n.a|
|Current Debt/Total Assets||49%||45%||42%||n.a|