Sephats Tours

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Travel Tour Agency Business Plan

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Financial Plan

The financial plan shall be essential if we are to meet our objectives. The intention is to finance growth through cash flow and equity.

One of the most important factors will be the payment terms as agreed between the client or customer. We can't push our customers hard on collection days, because they are extremely sensitive and will normally judge us on our terms. Therefore there is need to develop a permanent system of receivables financing systems mutually agreed between both parties. Hence in the financial plan we intend to have the following:

  1. A fundamental respect for giving our customers value, and for maintaining a healthy and congenial workplace.
  2. Cash flow as first priority, growth second, profits third.
  3. Respect for realistic forecasts, and conservative cash flow and financial management.

7.1 Important Assumptions

The financial plan depends on important assumptions. From the beginning, we recognize that payment terms and hence collection days are critical, but not a factor we can influence easily. At least we are planning on the problem, and dealing with it. Interest rates, tax rates, and personnel burden are based on conservative assumptions.

Some of the more important underlying assumptions are:

  • We assume a strong economy, without major recession.
  • We assume, of course, that there are no unforeseen changes in economic policy to make our service immediately obsolete or unwanted.

We assume amongst other things a 60-day average collection period, sales entirely on invoice basis except for individuals who come directly to us, expenses mainly on a net 30 day basis, 30 days on average for payment of invoices, and present-day interest rates.

General Assumptions
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Plan Month 1 2 3
Current Interest Rate 10.00% 10.00% 10.00%
Long-term Interest Rate 10.00% 10.00% 10.00%
Tax Rate 18.08% 17.00% 18.08%
Other 0 0 0

7.2 Key Financial Indicators

We foresee a slow initial growth in sales, as we strive to ensure we are known on the market, though operating expenses will be relatively high, and a bump in our sales and revenue generation as we spread our services during expansion.

Collection days are very important. We do not want to let our average collection days get above the client's actual subscription period under any circumstances. This could cause a serious problem with cash flow, because our working capital situation is chronically tight. However, we recognize that we cannot control this factor easily, because of the relationship we wish to create with our clients.

7.3 Projected Profit and Loss

Our projected profit and loss is shown in the table below, with sales increasing from more than P350,000 the first year to more than P556,500 the second, and P630,000 in the third year. Our net profit margin is relatively good for a start-up organization in our line of business. Hence we do expect to more than break-even in the first year of operation.

As with the break-even, we are projecting very conservatively regarding cost of sales and gross margin. Our cost of sales may be much lower, and gross margin higher, than in this projection. We prefer to project conservatively so that we make sure we have enough cash. The detailed monthly projections are included in the appendix.

Pro Forma Profit and Loss
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Sales $350,000 $556,500 $630,000
Direct Cost of Sales $70,000 $111,300 $126,000
Other $0 $0 $0
Total Cost of Sales $70,000 $111,300 $126,000
Gross Margin $280,000 $445,200 $504,000
Gross Margin % 80.00% 80.00% 80.00%
Expenses
Payroll $112,800 $266,400 $289,200
Sales and Marketing and Other Expenses $23,700 $27,163 $29,879
Depreciation $0 $0 $0
Miscellaneous $2,400 $2,640 $2,904
Leased Equipment $0 $0 $0
Rent $14,400 $15,840 $17,424
Travel $1,800 $1,980 $2,184
Insurance $12,000 $13,200 $14,520
Maintenance $12,000 $0 $0
Payroll Taxes $0 $0 $0
Other $0 $0 $0
Total Operating Expenses $179,100 $327,223 $356,111
Profit Before Interest and Taxes $100,900 $117,977 $147,889
EBITDA $100,900 $117,977 $147,889
Interest Expense $0 $0 $0
Taxes Incurred $16,799 $20,056 $26,743
Net Profit $84,101 $97,921 $121,146
Net Profit/Sales 24.03% 17.60% 19.23%

7.4 Break-even Analysis

Our break-even analysis will be based on running costs, that is costs we shall incur in keeping the business running, including salaries and wages, rent, vehicle and computer maintenance costs, water and electricity, insurance amongst others. Hence many fixed costs shall be included in these costs. We will thus ensure that our sales levels are running comfortably above break-even.

Break-even Analysis
Monthly Revenue Break-even $18,656
Assumptions:
Average Percent Variable Cost 20%
Estimated Monthly Fixed Cost $14,925

7.5 Projected Cash Flow

The following chart and table highlights the projected Cash Flow statement for Sephats Tours.

Pro Forma Cash Flow
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Cash Received
Cash from Operations
Cash Sales $175,000 $278,250 $315,000
Cash from Receivables $133,700 $253,883 $306,327
Subtotal Cash from Operations $308,700 $532,133 $621,327
Additional Cash Received
Sales Tax, VAT, HST/GST Received $0 $0 $0
New Current Borrowing $0 $0 $0
New Other Liabilities (interest-free) $0 $0 $0
New Long-term Liabilities $0 $0 $0
Sales of Other Current Assets $0 $0 $0
Sales of Long-term Assets $0 $0 $0
New Investment Received $0 $0 $0
Subtotal Cash Received $308,700 $532,133 $621,327
Expenditures Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Expenditures from Operations
Cash Spending $112,800 $266,400 $289,200
Bill Payments $144,204 $199,521 $219,625
Subtotal Spent on Operations $257,004 $465,921 $508,825
Additional Cash Spent
Sales Tax, VAT, HST/GST Paid Out $0 $0 $0
Principal Repayment of Current Borrowing $0 $0 $0
Other Liabilities Principal Repayment $0 $0 $0
Long-term Liabilities Principal Repayment $0 $0 $0
Purchase Other Current Assets $0 $0 $0
Purchase Long-term Assets $0 $0 $0
Dividends $0 $0 $0
Subtotal Cash Spent $257,004 $465,921 $508,825
Net Cash Flow $51,696 $66,212 $112,502
Cash Balance $81,696 $147,907 $260,409

7.6 Projected Balance Sheet

The table below outlines the company's Balance Sheet.

Pro Forma Balance Sheet
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Assets
Current Assets
Cash $81,696 $147,907 $260,409
Accounts Receivable $41,300 $65,667 $74,340
Inventory $9,240 $14,692 $16,632
Other Current Assets $0 $0 $0
Total Current Assets $132,236 $228,266 $351,381
Long-term Assets
Long-term Assets $167,000 $167,000 $167,000
Accumulated Depreciation $0 $0 $0
Total Long-term Assets $167,000 $167,000 $167,000
Total Assets $299,236 $395,266 $518,381
Liabilities and Capital Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Current Liabilities
Accounts Payable $18,134 $16,244 $18,213
Current Borrowing $0 $0 $0
Other Current Liabilities $0 $0 $0
Subtotal Current Liabilities $18,134 $16,244 $18,213
Long-term Liabilities $0 $0 $0
Total Liabilities $18,134 $16,244 $18,213
Paid-in Capital $202,000 $202,000 $202,000
Retained Earnings ($5,000) $79,101 $177,022
Earnings $84,101 $97,921 $121,146
Total Capital $281,101 $379,022 $500,168
Total Liabilities and Capital $299,236 $395,266 $518,381
Net Worth $281,101 $379,022 $500,168

7.7 Business Ratios

The following table shows some important ratios for the Tour Operators industry, as determined by the Standard Industry Classification (SIC) Code, 4725.

Ratio Analysis
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Industry Profile
Sales Growth 0.00% 59.00% 13.21% 4.00%
Percent of Total Assets
Accounts Receivable 13.80% 16.61% 14.34% 22.30%
Inventory 3.09% 3.72% 3.21% 0.70%
Other Current Assets 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 42.80%
Total Current Assets 44.19% 57.75% 67.78% 65.80%
Long-term Assets 55.81% 42.25% 32.22% 34.20%
Total Assets 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%
Current Liabilities 6.06% 4.11% 3.51% 33.10%
Long-term Liabilities 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 16.40%
Total Liabilities 6.06% 4.11% 3.51% 49.50%
Net Worth 93.94% 95.89% 96.49% 50.50%
Percent of Sales
Sales 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%
Gross Margin 80.00% 80.00% 80.00% 40.10%
Selling, General & Administrative Expenses 56.07% 62.40% 60.52% 30.80%
Advertising Expenses 4.71% 3.26% 3.17% 0.80%
Profit Before Interest and Taxes 28.83% 21.20% 23.47% 1.20%
Main Ratios
Current 7.29 14.05 19.29 1.66
Quick 6.78 13.15 18.38 1.29
Total Debt to Total Assets 6.06% 4.11% 3.51% 49.50%
Pre-tax Return on Net Worth 35.89% 31.13% 29.57% 2.70%
Pre-tax Return on Assets 33.72% 29.85% 28.53% 5.30%
Additional Ratios Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Net Profit Margin 24.03% 17.60% 19.23% n.a
Return on Equity 29.92% 25.84% 24.22% n.a
Activity Ratios
Accounts Receivable Turnover 4.24 4.24 4.24 n.a
Collection Days 56 70 81 n.a
Inventory Turnover 10.91 9.30 8.05 n.a
Accounts Payable Turnover 8.95 12.17 12.17 n.a
Payment Days 27 32 28 n.a
Total Asset Turnover 1.17 1.41 1.22 n.a
Debt Ratios
Debt to Net Worth 0.06 0.04 0.04 n.a
Current Liab. to Liab. 1.00 1.00 1.00 n.a
Liquidity Ratios
Net Working Capital $114,101 $212,022 $333,168 n.a
Interest Coverage 0.00 0.00 0.00 n.a
Additional Ratios
Assets to Sales 0.85 0.71 0.82 n.a
Current Debt/Total Assets 6% 4% 4% n.a
Acid Test 4.51 9.11 14.30 n.a
Sales/Net Worth 1.25 1.47 1.26 n.a
Dividend Payout 0.00 0.00 0.00 n.a